This report was the first of its kind to analyze the green job market in MI (3% of workforce) through an analytical (industrial and occupational trends), qualitative (focus groups), and quantitative (employer survey) approach. Discussed are Michigan's green related industries and occupations, and also tracking them. It's concluded that the MI green job market has further potential and is growing despite an economic downturn.
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This resource is composed of materials from Wayne State University's professional development workshops which are designed to introduce educators to hybrid electric and electric vehicle fundamentals. Included materials are an event agenda, faculty presentations, and fliers.
This resource contains handouts and presentations from the 2013 Center for Advanced Automotive Technology (CAAT) Conference: Preparing the Workforce for the Automotive Technology of 2025. This conference took place on May 30, 2013 at Macomb Community College's South Campus in Warren, MI and was attended by more than 80 individuals representing various high schools, community colleges, and universities as well as multiple government agencies, professional organizations, and industry workforce representatives. The purpose of the conference was to explore how the technologies of 2025 will affect required job skills.
This resource contains presentations from one of the Center for Automotive Research's (CAR's) breakfast briefings titled "Automotive Fuels and Emissions: Policies, Compliance, & Potential Impact of Future Technologies." This briefing occurred on 12/5/13 at Robert Bosch LLC in Farmington Hills, MI. At the briefing presenters discussed the strategic implications of Tier 3 regulations which will soon be finalized and may impact future technology decisions in a multitude of ways. The impact of Tier 3 emission regulations is expected to be far reaching as they have the potential to influence the quality of fuel, as well as usage of alternative fuels and powertrains. Further, the regulations will have a direct influence on the technologies, such as diesel and gasoline direct injection, that automakers will utilize to meet the fuel economy standards through MY2025. Included in this resource are the presentations from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Volkswagen, and Bosch utilized at the briefing.
This resource contains presentations from the Center for Automotive Research (CAR) 2013 Management Briefing Seminars held August 5-8, 2013. With over 900 attendees from industry, government, media, and academia, the event featured outstanding presentations from industry thought leaders as well as various networking and social events. Using CAR research as a foundation, these seminars revolved around global manufacturing strategies, lightweighting, connected vehicles, powertrain developments, sales forecasting, purchasing, policy, designing for technology, and capital investment.
This resource contains speaker presentations from the 2013 Plug-In Conference and Exposition. This conference took place September 30, 2013 to October 3, 2013 at Liberty Station in San Diego, CA and had the theme What's Next for the Electric Highway? This event brought together automotive manufacturers, component suppliers, electric utilities, government agencies, academia, and the environmental community to collaborate on the next steps in plug-in electric vehicle technology, infrastructure, policies and regulations, and market development.
This resource contains the agenda and presentations from the 2014 Center for Advanced Automotive Technology (CAAT) Conference: You Can't See the Future in the Rearview Mirror. This conference took place on May 2, 2014 at Macomb Community College's South Campus in Warren, MI and was attended by more than 120 individuals representing various high schools, community colleges, and universities as well as multiple government agencies, professional organizations, and industry workforce representatives.
This resource contains presentations from the Center for Automotive Research (CAR) 2014 Management Briefing Seminars held August 4-7, 2014. With attendees from industry, government, media, and academia, the event featured outstanding presentations from industry thought leaders as well as various networking and social events. Using CAR research as a foundation, these seminars revolved around the most important issues facing the automotive industry today: manufacturing, powertrain, sales forecasting, connected and automated vehicles, purchasing, talent, and supply chain.
This resource contains a presentation from a webinar and video of the webinar regarding a study carried out by Ducker Worldwide and funded by The Aluminum Association to evaluate the aluminum content in 2015 model year vehicles and the projected aluminum content growth through 2025. Also included is the executive summary of the study.
The following course was created by Grand Rapids Community College (GRCC), through seed funding from theCAAT, to train workers for entry level positions in the advanced energy manufacturing industry. The course is designed around OSHA's "Standards for General Industry" and if taught by an authorized General Industry Outreach Training Program Instructor, students should receive an OSHA General Industry 30-hour Safety certification. Instructional materials include PowerPoint presentations, instructor notes, OSHA instructor and student manuals (handouts/assignments), and lesson objectives. All lessons are intended to be taught through PowerPoint presentations with guidance from the included lesson objectives and notes for instructors. The included PowerPoints are original OSHA presentations modified by GRCC and originals created by GRCC. The lesson topics are: Introduction to OSHA Safety and Health Programs, Hazard Mapping, Personal Protective Equipment, Exit Routes and Emergency Action Plans, Fire Protection and Prevention, Electrical Hazards, Ergonomics and Manual Material Handling, Walking and Working Surfaces, Industrial Hygiene, Flammable and Combustible Liquids Hazard CommunicationExit Routes and Emergency Action Plans, Fire Protection and Prevention, First Aid and CPR, Hand and Power Tool Safety, Machine Guarding, and Control of Hazardous Energy (Lockout/Tag-out).For more information on the course visit https://learning.grcc.edu/ec2k/CourseListing.asp?master_id=777&course_area=CEMF&course_number=102&course_subtitle=00.
This three credit course offered at Macomb Community College provides an introduction to hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs). Material covered includes alternative fuels, HEV batteries and accessories, HEV maintenance and diagnostics, regenerative braking, and safety procedures. Included educational materials for this course are crosswords, sample exams and quizzes, labs, lesson plans, pre/post assessments, and syllabus. Solutions are not provided with any materials. If you're an instructor and would like complete exams, quizzes, or solutions, please contact theCAAT. This course is composed of ten modules that may be used to supplement existing courses or taught together as a complete course. Module subjects are: Carbon Fuels and the Environment, Intro to Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEV), Internal Combustion Engine (ICE) Systems, Gasoline and Alternative Fuels, HEV Batteries and Service, Electric Motors, Generators, and Controllers, Regenerative Braking, HEV Transmissions and Transaxles, HEV Climate Control, and HEVFirst Resonder and Safety Procedures
This three credit course offered at Macomb Community College discusses the practical application of hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) power management systems. Areas of study include computer controls of the internal combustion engine (ICE), battery types, HEV thermal management, motors, safety, and HEV/EV accessories. System types, service procedures, and diagnostic procedures are covered for Ford, General Motors, Honda, and Lexus/Toyota vehicles. Included educational materials for this course are homework, sample exams and quizzes, labs, lesson plans, pre-assessment, and syllabus. Solutions are not provided with any materials. If you're an instructor and would like complete exams, quizzes, or solutions, please contact theCAAT. This course is composed of six modules that can be used to supplement existing courses or taught together as a complete course. These modules are Intro to HEVs,Honda HEVs, Toyota HEVs,Ford HEVs, GM HEVs, and Fuel Cells
This four credit course offered by Macomb Community College provides practical training in the theory and basic design aspects of electric vehicle propulsion systems and is a required course for MCC's Electric VehicleDevelopment Technology Certificate. Primary subjects covered include rationale forelectric vehicles(EVs), safety, battery technologies, basic battery testing, electric machine (motor) types, electric machine operation, power management, power inverters, DC to DC converters, accessory systems, and potential future technologies. Educational materials included arethe first day handout, detailed course outcomes, homework (no solutions), labs, pre/post assessments, presentations, sample quizzes/exams, syllabus, and more. If you're an instructor and need access to homework solutions or complete exams/quizzes, please contact theCAAT. This course is composed of nine modules thatcan be used to supplement existing courses or can betaught together as a complete course.These modules are The Need for EVs, EV Safety, Introduction to Battery Chemistry, Battery Pack Integration with Vehicle Systems, Electric Machines (DC Motors, AD Induction Asynchronous Motors, Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor, and Switched Reluctance Motors), Power Inverter/Electronic Motor Controls, DC to DC Converters, Vehicle Accessory Systems, and Introduction to Advancing Technology (Fuel Cells, Ultra Capacitors, and Hydraulic Propulsion)
The following module consists of a PowerPoint presentation, two lab sheets, and a syllabus for modifying automotive engine courses to include HEV technologies and was developedthrough a seed grant from theCAAT. The PowerPoint discusses the application of variable valve timing (VVT) and Atkinson cycle principals to HEVs, and the extra hydrocarbon capturing devices added to HEVs due to the use VVT and Atkinson principles. The lab "Compression Testing VVT systems" reinforces the ideas of the presentation illustrating engine malfunctions caused by a faulty VVT system. For additional insight on HEV engine service procedures, an oil change lab sheet for HEVs is included. For educators looking to modify current courses, the syllabus has highlighted fields where HEV technologies were incorporated to an engines course at Lewis and Clark Community College.
This resource was developedthrough a seed grant from theCAAT and discusses the advanced air conditioningsystems placed inHEVsand safety precautions to follow when servicing them. These systems are high voltage A/C compressors and thecomponents controlling them (A/CECU, HV ECU,and Converter Control Circuit). Safety precautions discussed include Class 0 insulated gloves, insulated tools, color coding of wire looms to indicate voltage, CAT III and IV multimeter use, and properly disabling high voltage circuits. For educators looking to modify current courses, a syllabus is included with highlighted fields where HEVsystems and safety were incorporated into an existing automotive heating and cooling course at Lewis and Clark Community College.
These modules were originally presented to First Responders during a two-day workshop at the North Carolina Solar Center (now known as the North Carolina Clean Energy Technology Center) and were taught by National Alternative Fuels Training Consortium trained instructors. Three separate modules were used to educate them on the properties, technology, and safety precautions to take when working with alternative fuel vehicles utilizing gaseous fuels, biofuels, and electric drivetrains.
In this brochure, the European Aluminium Association (EAA) evaluates the need for vehicle lightweighting to reduce CO2 emissions. Since the 70's aluminum has been used for some car components (radiators, cylinder heads, and bumper beams), but now has grown to the average amount of 140 kg per car produced in Europe. Aluminum castings, extrusions, forgings and sheets can now be found nearly everywhere, including in car bodies, closures, chassis, suspensions and wheels. This resource explains why, now more than ever, reducing vehicle mass is necessary and how aluminum can be used to further improve the sustainability and the safety of future generations of cars.
Thismanual created by the European Aluminium Association is a comprehensive compilation of aluminum use in commercial applications. Discussed are application, design, joining, treatment, cleaning, repair, and various methods of processing aluminum. Although this report is of particular interest to design engineers, process engineers, repair managers and maintenance managers, it's also very useful to anyone interested in aluminum development and use in transportation.
A concise fact sheet on aluminum use in transport by the European Aluminium Association (EAA). Topics include applications (auto, air, marine, and rail), benefits, economic role, energy consumption, history, and sustainability.
This report by The Aluminum Association reviews the North American use of aluminum over the past 20 years in order to improve industry emissions, efficiency, recycling, and to address the challenges ahead in regards of sustainability. Challenges faced with sustainability include technological progress, energy and resource use, waste minimization and elimination, business operations, and product end-of-life ("design for recycling" and recycling incentives).
In this report funded by The Aluminum Associationand performed by IBIS Associates, the consumer's vehicle lifecycle cost for conventional gas, diesel, alternative fuel, and hybrid vehicles are compared using lightweight aluminum instead of steel. Since alternative fuel and hybrid vehicles are put at a cost disadvantage due to lower production, all studies were conducted with projected cost as if these vehicles were mass produced. Some factors affecting lifecycle cost are miles per gallon, materials, components, initial price, and maintenance. It's concluded that using aluminum in place of steel will lower the overall lifecycle price of all types of vehicles. However, in the current market the overall lifecycle cost of a conventional gas vehicle will still be less expensive than a hybrid vehicle despite the higher miles per gallon of the hybrid. IBIS has conducted studies for OEM, Tier 1, and material suppliers on material economics, manufacturing, operation, and disposal/recycle costs (slide4). For more info on IBIS visit http://ibisassociates.com.
This study was carried out by Ducker Worldwide and funded by The Aluminum Association to evaluate the aluminum content in 2012 model year vehicles and the projected aluminum content growth through 2025. To gather data and form projections, Ducker surveyed original equipment manufactures (OEMs) and The Aluminum Association to create a metallic materials database with 32,000 cells per light vehicle. Using their database and other information from OEMs, Ducker concluded in the 2012 model year the average weight of aluminum on light vehicles will be approximately 348lbs, 30% of hoods will be aluminum, and 50% of cast aluminum wheels will be sourced from China. To meet corporate average fuel economy (CAFE) standards in 2025 Ducker speculates vehicle aluminum content will grow by 80% (671lbs avg. truck and 451lbs avg. for cars), milled aluminum components will increase, 50% of hoods will be aluminum, and manifolds will be made from magnesium rather than aluminum. Based on this study's conclusions, it's clear that aluminum content in vehicles will continue to grow to meet CAFE standards by 2025. For more info on Ducker Worldwide, visit http://www.ducker.com/. Ducker has also performed studies for the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Department of Energy (DOE).
In this study funded by the Energy Foundation, performed by Lotus Engineering, and released by the International Council on Clean Transportation (ICCT), the potential mass reduction of a 2009 Toyota Venza is evaluated. Through advanced methodologies, Lotus replaces components with various high strength materials and reduces the quantity of components through integration. It's concluded in low development 21% mass may be reduced while cost is kept to 98% and in high development 38% mass may be reduced while cost is kept to 103%.
This study was performed by Dynamic Research, Inc. and funded by The Aluminum Association to evaluate the effects on safety when vehicle size and weight are varied. The tests carried out by Dynamic used a numerical model approach with data from the National Automotive Sampling System (NASS) SUV crash database combined with FEM techniques created for the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) and the U.S. Air Force. It was found increasing vehicle size, rather than reducing weight by 20%, created much safer collisions. Ideally, if a vehicle could be made lighter and longer, it would be safer and create fewer emissions due to weight reduction.
This presentation by Bob Feldmaier and Joe Petrosky of the Center for Advanced Automotive Technology (CAAT) was presented at the 2013 ATE National Principal Investigators Conference during the workshop "Follow the Money: Strategies for Leveraging ATE Grant Funding" and describes how the CAAT strategically leverages grant funding. Discussed in the presentation is Macomb Community College(MCC), CAAT affiliations, the past and present auto industry, MCC's and the CAAT's response to the evolving auto industry, and MCC grants and their impact on the future electric vehicle business sector. This conference took place at the Omni Shoreham Hotel in Washington, D.C. from October 23-25, 2013 and featured many other presentations, workshops, etc. from other Advanced Technological Education (ATE) centers.
This presentation by Bob Feldmaier of the Center for Advanced Automotive Technology (CAAT) was presented at the 2013 IEEE Transportation Electrification Conference and Expo (ITEC'13): Components, Systems, and Power Electronics - From Technology to Business and Public Policy and provides a brief overview of the CAAT. Discussed in the presentation are the CAAT's purpose and strategic priorities, Macomb Community College's (MCC's) Electric Vehicle Development Technology Certificate, and continuing education and workforce development courses at MCC. This conference took place June 16 " 19, 2013 at the Adoba Hotel in Dearborn, MI and focused on current and future trends in transportation electrification.
This presentation by Bob Feldmaier of the Center for Advanced Automotive Technology (CAAT) was presented at the 2013 conference Manufacturing the Nextgen Workforce and provides an overview of the CAAT. Discussed in the presentation are the CAAT's mission and strategic priorities, affiliations, Macomb Community College's (MCC's) automotive programs, and potential career pathways. This conference was hosted by Clemson University's science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) Workforce Development group and took place from 9/30/13 to 10/2/13 at the Charleston Area Convention Center in North Charleston, SC. This conference also featured presentations from other Advanced Technological Education (ATE) centers and educational institutions.
In this two year study funded by the California Energy Commission and S.D. Bechtel, a committee of individuals from major energy research institutions in California develops strategies to meet Executive Order S-3-05. Executive Order S-3-05 requires California to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions to 80% of 1990 levels by 2050. To accomplish this, CO2 levels will need to drop from 13 tons CO2e per capita (2005) to 1.6 tons CO2e per capita (2050) while the population continues to grow and energy use is expected to double. To offer a solution to this challenge, multiple "energy system portraits" are developed with combinations of nuclear, biomass, electricity, and fossil fuels with carbon capturing systems. It's concluded by applying key aggressive strategies and investing in multiple technologies, implementations, research, development, and innovation, California can meet executive order S-3-05.
This document contains test protocols to determine the performance and durability of fuel cell components such as electrocatalysts and supports, membranes, and membrane electrode assemblies (MEAs). These protocols were established with the intent to be used as a common industry standard when assessing durability of different polymer electrolyte membranes (PEM) in fuel cells for automotive applications and to be compared against DOE and FreedomCar targets. The resulting data may also help to model the performance of the fuel cell under variable load conditions and the effects of ageing on performance.
In this report funded by the World Bank and carried out by the firm PRTM, China's New Energy Program and 10 Cities 1000 Vehicles program are evaluated. China is on the forefront of electric vehicle (EV) and hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) development leading the world in funding of new energy vehicles (100 billion RMB investments by 2021). Leading the development of new energy technologies is faced with challenges such as policy, grid solutions, standards, new business models, new technologies, and customer acceptance. This report reviews China's current energy programs and predicts future government and commercial changes to come due to new energy technologies.
In this study by the European Aluminium Association and FKA (Forschungsgesellschaft Kraftfahrwesen Aachen), a concept crash system for 40t trucks is developed based on the front end design used in the "APROSYS" study. The concept was built around European safety regulations in CAD software and simulated with an FE model using aluminum and steel. It was found that using an octagon shaped aluminum crush box would be the safest due to its characteristics of low weight, high energy absorption, and low technical complexity. Through additional testing it was also found if EU directive 96/53/EC could be modified to exclude cabin dimensions from its requirements, safer collisions for both parties would result.
This study evaluates whether the amendment which determines fuel economy targets based on vehicle footprint (wheel base by track width) to the U.S. Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) standards creates an incentive for manufactures to produce larger vehicles. By using an "oligopolistic-equilibrium model" while considering a range of customer preferences, it is determined that this amendment does create an incentive for manufacturers to produce larger vehicles; especially in light trucks. By producing these larger vehicles, there are the negative effects of lower fuel economy, higher emissions, worse vehicle performance, and higher traffic safety risks.
The objective of this paper is to describe the development of an educational purpose computer-based simulator for Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV) technology. The tremendous capital investment, tedious and time-consuming tasks required to establish a full function of HEV laboratory are convincing evidence that the HEV curriculum is in need of a low-cost, computer-based virtual HEV simulator. An interactive, LabVIEW-based simulation software was developed for different configurations of hybrid powertrains under several driving conditions. The developed software is capable of simulating, illustrating and displaying (on the PC-based screen) the multiple energy flows in the HEV based on its configuration and driving conditions. The software integrated with actuator assembles the simulator which serves as a hands-on experience unit for multidiscipline students enrolled in the HEV technology courses. The virtual HEV simulator not only enhances the HEV training and education, but also increases students' interest in the green movement of transportation.
This module isderived from thecourse "Intro to Mechatronics" at Lawrence Technological University and was developed through seed funding from theCAAT. This module contains a PowerPoint presentation and LabVIEW simulation file. In the presentation the following concepts are discussed: wheel/tire-terrain interactive dynamics (wheel loads, effective rolling radius, and power balance),inverse dynamics-based control (changing rolling conditions and angular velocity control),control strategies (loops and algorithms), andcontrol algorithms in the LabVIEW environment.
This two credit course offeredat Macomb Community College explains how sensors, communications technologies, computational ability, control, and feedback mechanisms can be effectively combined to create a continually adjusting smart grid system. It provides an understanding of both Intelligrid architecture and EnergyPort, as well as how to integrate intelligent systems to achieve the goals of reliability, cost containment, energy efficiency in power production and delivery, and end-use energy efficiency. Included educational materials for this course are presentations, reports, and a syllabus. Homework assignments and exams are not included. The course outline is as follows: review of right triangles, wooden poles, pole loading, what is the Smart Grid?, electric energy efficiency in power production and delivery, electric end use efficiency, using a Smart Grid to evolve the perfect power system, intelliGrid architecture for the Smart Grid, the dynamic energy system concept, and Smart Grid EnergyPort.
This three credit course offeredat Macomb Community Collegeprovides an introduction toalternating current (AC)motors, AC motor controls, and AC motor applications tobattery electric and hybrid electric vehicles (BEVs and HEVs). Course topics include fundamental concepts of electricity and magnetism, AC motors, traction motors, AC synchronous permanent magnet motors, HEV/BEV energy storage and control systems, adjustable frequency drives, and modeling of various components associated with electric drivevehicles in MatLab and Simulink software. Included educational materials for this course are a syllabus and PowerPoint presentations. Homework assignments and exams are not included. This course is required as a part of MCC's Electric VehicleDevelopmentTechnology Certificate and the course outline is as follows: introduction to single-phase motors, motor operation theory, basic motor controls, introduction to three phase motors, three-phase motor controls, theory of operation for adjustable frequency drives, configuring drive parameters, simulation of parameters using MatLab software, and simulation of electric vehicle parameters using Simulink software.
This three credit course offered at Macomb Community College emphasizes the architecture ofautomotive electronics with attention to electric vehicles and is a required course for MCC's Electric Vehicle DevelopmentTechnology Certificate. Topics included are review of electrical and electronics theory, vehicle network theory, vehicle controllers, automotive bus systems, On-Board Diagnostics(OBD) systems,controller area nework (CAN), sensors, actuators, and selected topics in power control. Using simulators, students will gain a broad knowledge of the networks used in an automotive system. Included educational materials for this course are classroom exercises, manuals, PowerPoint presentations, system specificguides, and syllabus. Homework assignments and exams are not included. The course outline is as follows: electrical and electronic systems in a vehicle, networking principles, vehicle network, bus systems, electronics systems architecture, electronic components in vehicles, control unit, automotive sensors, sensor measuring principles, sensor types, actuators,vehicle electrical systems, vehicle controllers, vehicle On-Board Diagnostics (OBD), andhybrid drives.
This resource contains presentations from a three credit course offered at Wayne State University focused on the following hybrid electricand electric vehicle (HEV/EV) technologies: concepts and design, energy analysis, unified model approach, hybridization, hybrid powertrain architectures, internal combustion engines for HEVs, transmissions used in HEVs, and on-board energy storage. At WSU, ET 3450 (Applied Calculus and Differential Equations) and PHY 2140 (General Physics) are prerequisites to this course. The presentation titles are: 1. Introduction of Hybrid Electric Vehicles and Plugin Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEV/PHEV), 2. Overview of Vehicle Road Load, 3. Hybrid Powertrain Configurations, 4. Vehicle Electrification, 5. Hybrid Powertrain Components, 6. Overview of Electrically Variable Transmissions (EVT), 7. Electric Machines, 8. Power Electronics Pt. 1, 9. Power Electronics Pt. 2, 10. On-Board Energy Storage, Battery Cell Management, State Estimation, Cell Balancing, and Charging Schemes, 11. Battery Management Systems (BMS), 12. Fundamentals of Regenerative Braking, 13. Modeling and Simulation Software for Vehicle System and Driveline Analysis, and 14. HEV/PHEV/EV Future Trends.
This resource contains a PowerPoint presentation delivered by Doug Fertuck of the CAAT at the Michigan Electric Vehicle Show and Rally on Jun 7, 2014, at Schoolcraft College in Livonia, MI. This annual show is a public event targeted at electric vehicle (EV) owners and those considering ownership of a plug-in EV. The show offered the display of a wide variety of EVs and related products, the opportunity to discuss the experience of owning EVs with experts and other owners, test drives of many of the available EVs, and a session featuring speakers on several topics and a panel to answer the questions of those in attendance. During the panel session at the event, Doug Fertuck of the CAAT delivered the presentation included in this resource. The presentation discusses classifications of EVs, the many pros and cons of EV ownership, and EV market trends. Also included is the agenda from the event.
This research report was performed by Ricardo Inc. and funded by The Aluminum Association to evaluate the benefits of structural and powertrain weight reduction on vehicles with hybrid and electric powertrains. In the study, simulation tests were performed by changing structural weight and battery capacity to achieve a range of 40 and 80 miles. It was concluded by using lightweight structural components, vehicles with smaller and less expensive batteries would be able to travel the same range as vehicles with larger more expensive batteries and steel components. However, the extra costs of the lightweight structural components vs. the savings on batteries were not presented.