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Analysis of modern scientific approaches to calculating the number of passengers on air transport
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The article reveals the state of modern scientific opinion on the issue of calculating the number of passengers on air transport. The research is of a review nature, the task of which is to define and evaluate methods for solving transport problems. To achieve the task, scientific publications included in the Scopus scientometrics database were used. Relevant scientific approaches to determining the parameters of passenger flow on air transport are studied in the section of the selection and use of methods for calculating the relevant parameters. The author's opinion on the issue of justification of the choice of the method used by the authors and the assessment of the adequacy of the methods proposed by the authors are highlighted. In the work, the method of system analysis was used in solving the task of conducting a study of the state of modern scientific opinion on the selection of methods for calculating passenger traffic on the aviation mode of transport.

Subject:
Engineering
Material Type:
Case Study
Author:
Olena Dolia
Date Added:
10/03/2022
Analysis of the state of modern scientific opinion on the issue of organizing passenger transportation by various modes of transport
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The scientific research is carried out on the issue of determining current global trends in approaches to the organization of passenger transportation in the operation of various types of transport. The latest publications reflecting the study of the process of passenger transportation by routes of various types of communication were taken into account. It is established that scientists identify many tasks and problems in the organization of passenger transportation. These tasks include determining vehicle schedules, protecting passengers ‘health while driving, ensuring certain conditions for passengers’ comfort before flights start, and many others. Problematic issues include, among other things, the following: driving time, the quality and impact of Station service, the organization of interaction between Station service vehicles, the safety component of the transportation process, determining the impact of service comfort when determining the method of transportation, and others. From the analysis, it is determined that the issue of passenger organization is relevant and is being studied for the processes of passenger transportation from urban to intercontinental routes, and such issues are relevant for all types of transport. It can be noted that the issues of Ecology and passenger Health Protection have recently gained popularity and are considered by scientists when studying the conditions of passengers ‘ stay in the cabin when receiving transportation services. To a large extent, recently the attention of scientists has been drawn to the issue of establishing the comfort of passenger service before traveling at the stages of booking/buying tickets, waiting for a flight on the territories of airports or railway stations. An opinion is expressed about the influence of such comfort on the subconscious decision-making of passengers in determining the method of Transportation. It is noted that the level of Organization of passenger service is a significant factor in planning the station load. Based on the results of the literature analysis, the following conclusions were obtained: the issues of organizing passenger transportation are relevant, the study of the integrated functioning of the passenger transportation system is relevant and implemented by modeling such processes, mathematical, computer and other simulation models are used in such simulations. When conducting computer simulations, among other things, resistance factors determine the time and comfort of riding.

Subject:
Engineering
Material Type:
Case Study
Author:
Dolia Olena
Date Added:
08/02/2022
Analysis of the state of modern scientific thought on the use of vehicles in passenger transport
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Scientific research on the state of modern scientific thought on the use of vehicles in passenger transport reveals the state of establishing relevant approaches to solving a wide range of problems and challenges for scientists around the world. The paper set such a task as a systematic analysis of modern scientific literature published during 2010 - 2022 on the organization of passenger transport by different types and types of passenger transport. Only articles included in the Scopus scientometric database were used in the study. The purpose of this work is to identify modern methodological, theoretical, scientific approaches to addressing the issues inherent in the processes of passenger transportation. The results of the study found that the current state of scientific thought, for the most part, offers a simulation of passenger transport processes. Researchers drew attention to passenger traffic not only by different types and modes of transport, but also by different distances. The approaches of transport modelling proposed by scientists take into account the solution of problems, but do not consider the problems of the transport industry in full. It is also impossible to say with certainty that the methods proposed by scientists are such that take into account the multifactorial nature of external and internal parameters. Thus, not only external factors of the system and possible changes in
the parameters of internal subsystems are not fully taken into account, but also variants of the state and composition of the passenger transportation systems themselves. Among the proposed methods for calculating certain parameters, contemporaries mostly offer computer simulations or mathematical descriptions. The study concludes that the consideration of methods of mathematical and computer modelling as the main at the time of the study.

Subject:
Engineering
Material Type:
Case Study
Author:
Dolia Olena
Date Added:
05/13/2022
Calculation of three-layer plates by methods of vibration theory
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A three-layer plate with thick hard outer layers and a thin soft inner layer was studied. A model is considered on the example of an anti-sandwich panel to describe the mechanical behavior of a plate on the example of a solar panel. A review of the scientific literature was conducted, in which models of both analytical and numerical methods for calculating three-layer plates are displayed. The scientific work uses the method of finite element analysis using a spatial shell element, as well as the theory of single- and multi-layer plates. These elements combine the topology of volumetric elements and the kinematic and structural equations of a classical shell element. Shell elements based on continuum mechanics were used for numerical simulation. The study was carried out under static load under different conditions, and also the self-oscillations of the anti-sandwich were analyzed using the theories of Kirchhoff and Reisner-Mindlin. As part of the scientific work, a study of the mechanical model of a thin solar panel was carried out using finite element analysis taking into account different temperature conditions and comparing the results with existing studies

Subject:
Engineering
Material Type:
Case Study
Author:
Iaroslav Lavrenko
Olena Chaikovska
Sofiia Yakovlieva
Date Added:
10/03/2022
Characteristics and mechanical and technological properties of the soils of the Podillya and Polissya zone of Ukraine
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The characteristics and mechanical and technological properties of the soils of the Podillya and Polissуa zone of Ukraine are substantiated. It was established that a change in the moisture content of loamy and clayey soils causes a change in specific resistance by 20-60%. An analysis of the granulometric composition of soils and types of soil formation was carried out. It was established that important technical and economic indicators of land plots are the length of the furrows and the angle of inclination of the topography of the field. The distribution of land plots according to the soil resistivity indicator and the length of the furrow, the angle of inclination of the field relief and the operating conditions of machine units are substantiated, and graphical dependencies are also given. The obtained results were implemented in the educational process of the Higher Educational Institution "Podillia State University" and included in the educational and methodological complex of the discipline "Mechanical and technological properties of agricultural materials". Further development of research on mechanical and technological properties of soils was obtained, which is important for planning technological maps of growing agricultural crops and further designing machines for soil cultivation.

Subject:
Engineering
Material Type:
Case Study
Author:
Mykola Korchak
Date Added:
10/03/2022
THE DESIGN PROFILE OF THE DIRECTIONAL WELL ON THE NORTHERN GOTURDEPE FIELD
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When deciding to use the method of dual completion, the degree of depletion of reserves, the proximity of the oil-bearing contour to wells, the presence of resins and paraffin in the extracted oils, the thickness of productive layers and the non-permeable layers separating them, the state of the production column of wells, etc. are taken into account. The positive effect of applying the technology dual completion is expressed in a reduction in capital investments for the construction of wells for each of the operational facilities, in reducing operating costs and the development period of a multi-layer field, in increasing the production of hydrocarbons and the term of final oil recovery with cost-effective operation of wells. In addition, the use of this technology contributes to an increase in the utilization rate of downhole equipment and the reliability of the downhole installation. When two horizons are operated separately at the same time, the layers are separated from each other by a packer. One or two rows of pumping and compressor pipes descend into the well, which are lowered in parallel or concentrically. With dual completion of two or more horizons, reservoir development can be carried out according to the following schemes: fountain-fountain; fountain-pump; fountain-gas lift; fountain-injection; gas lift-pump; gas lift-gas lift, gas lift-injection; pump-pump; pump-injection; pump-injection. The article considers the experience of drilling a directional exploration well in Turkmenistan in order to trace and clarify the expansion of the area of productive horizons in the coastal zones of the coastal waters of the Caspian Sea. This work can be used for the development of fields in difficult-to-develop shallow waters and to reduce costs during their drilling, as well as to increase the volume of oil produced in order to develop the field using the method of dual completion (accelerated method), without increasing the oil recovery coefficient.

Subject:
Engineering
Material Type:
Case Study
Author:
Annaguly Deryaev
Date Added:
08/02/2022
DETERMINATION OF THE STRESS-STRAIN STATE OF THE STRUCTURAL ELEMENTS OF THE ELBOW ORTHOSIS PROTOTYPE
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Rehabilitation of patients should not be limited only to the time of intensive treatment in the hospital, but also to therapy in the following stages, especially during daily activities, if the patient’s condition requires it. Such devices that help the patient during postoperative or post-traumatic rehabilitation after joint damage are orthoses. This paper provides an overview of various types of orthoses, selects material for structural elements of the orthosis, and determines the stress-strain state of the sample under study. Also, based on the necessary operating conditions, the engine and bevel gear are selected. The model of the orthosis prototype is presented and the stress-strain state of the structural elements of the elbow orthosis prototype is determined.

Subject:
Engineering
Material Type:
Case Study
Author:
Bohdan Lebedynskyi
Iaroslav Lavrenko
Date Added:
08/02/2022
Eastern European Experience in the Application of Multilayer Reinforced Concrete Elements of External Wall Fencing
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The capital building field is constantly updating the tasks: to reduce material consumption, cost and complexity of building, the mass of buildings and structures; significantly improve thermal protection; to increase the level of industrialization of building and factory readiness of prefabricated constructions; to improve the architectural and operational qualities of buildings and structures. Practical realization of the set tasks entails the the necessity to expand the use effective kinds of building materials and constructions, improving their properties. The field of effective three-layer constructions in civil, industrial and agricultural building is wide and multifaceted, as it covers almost all constructive elements of buildings, the solution of which depends on the functional requirements imposed on buildings and structures, local climatic and geological conditions, availability of building materials, level of development industrial base, etc. Already behind the idea itself of layered reinforced concrete constructiones have significant advantages: 1) the ability to select the materials of the layers taking into account the effective use of their main functional qualities; 2) reducing the cost and outlay of cement; 3) weight reduction of separate constructions and buildings and/or structures as a whole; 4) reducing heat consumption and increasing heat transfer resistance without thickening the construction; 5) improving the temperature-humidity regime in the room, etc. The purpose of this article is to perform a brief overview of research, proposals for standardization of design developments conducted during the most active implementation in Eastern European building practice of three-layer reinforced concrete constructions for fencing by the heat, air and waterproofing properties, strength, deformations and crack resistance, as well as their manufacturing technology. The article takes into account the results of research, field observations, materials for the development of new proposals, accumulated in many research and design departments of Eastern Europe in the period from the late 60’s to mid-80’s of the 20th century (Research Institute of Building Constructions, Kyiv Zonal Research Institute of Experimental Design, Ukrainian Research and Design Institute of Civil Rural Construction (Ukraine); Central Research Institute of Building Constructions named after V.A. Kucherenko, All-Union Research Institute of Fire Safety, All-Union Scientific Research Institute of Reinforced Concrete, Central Research and Design Institute of Residential and Public Buildings, Central Research and Design and Experimental Institute of Industrial Buildings and Structures, Central Research Institute of Experimental Design of Commercial and Domestic Buildings and Tourist Complexes (Russia), etc.).

Subject:
Engineering
Material Type:
Case Study
Author:
Krus Yurii
Date Added:
06/03/2022
Image restoration evaluation method using spatial and frequency filters
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When processing and transmitting information in the form of images, the problem of reducing their distortion due to various noises is important. Noise reduces the quality of the image and thus the perception of the information contained in it. Because of these problems, the ability to evaluate the information that can be obtained as a result of analysis using both visual and computer methods is impaired. The process of reducing noise in images is handled by an area of image processing called restoration. Despite the intersection of this area with image enhancement, it should be noted that the latter is a largely subjective procedure, while the restoration process is largely objective in nature. During restoration, an attempt is made to reconstruct or reproduce the distorted image, using a priori information about the phenomenon that caused its deterioration. Restoration methods are based on the modeling of distortion processes and the use of reverse procedures to restore the original image. In this paper, a new method for evaluating the restoration of distorted images, implemented with the help of spatial and frequency filters, is proposed. It consists in converting distorted images before filtering into gray scale and obtaining their histograms. The obtained histogram is extrapolated by a Gaussian curve and the value of the root mean square deviation is determined. A similar procedure is carried out for the restored image. The analysis was performed in the Python programming language using the Pillow and OpenCV image libraries. . The restoration evaluation parameter R is proposed, which is the ratio of the difference between the root mean square deviations of the distorted and restored images to the root mean square deviation of the distorted image. The R parameter was estimated for the geometric mean filter, the midpoint filter, and the Wiener filter and was found to be equal to 0.2; 0.3 and 0.43, respectively, which correlates with visual observations.

Subject:
Engineering
Material Type:
Case Study
Author:
Ihor Polovynko
Oleksandr Semochko
Date Added:
10/03/2022
Inertia as a consequence of complementarity of body movement in space and time
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In theoretical physics, the problem of inertia was and remains a controversial issue, since the origin of the source of the inertial force remains unknown. The solution presented in the paper equates inertia with the resistance of energetically negative space. In the obtained expression for the acceleration of inertia there is no dependence on the mass. Therefore, attempts to find out the physical essence of inertia within the framework of modern theories of gravity were unsuccessful. In the proposed version, inertia is the property of the energetically negative part of the space-time continuum without external influences on the body to ensure its state of rest or uniform rectilinear motion, and in the presence of external forces to prevent the body's velocity from changing. That is, inertia is a property of space itself. The study of inertia in this work is carried out within the following scientific paradigm. The universe is considered as an energetically neutral system. The positive part of whose energy is represented by matter and radiation and, accordingly, by a time-like continuum. The negative part of the energy is represented by the energy of antiparticles uniformly distributed in space, which ensures the existence of a space-like state of the continuum. The property of mutual complementarity of movement in space and movement in time is used. In particular, the square of the speed of the body's movement along the world line is equal to the sum of the squares of the speed along the spatial and temporal coordinate axes. Using this property, it is justified that the force acting along the spatial axis of coordinates is accompanied by the appearance of a force along the time axis of the opposite direction or the force of inertia. The force of inertia is aimed at returning the continuum to the energy-minimum light-like state. The acceleration of inertia is considered as the force of resistance of the space-like state of the continuum (space) to the force that appeared in its time-like state (in the material world). Calculating the acceleration of inertia requires a change in the coordinate system: the spatial coordinate axis becomes temporal and, conversely, temporal - spatial. This means that the acceleration of inertia is related to that part of the structure of the continuum, which is called the spatial world, that is, with space. And since the acceleration of inertia has the opposite sign to the usual acceleration, it is interpreted as the resistance of space to the accelerated movement of the body, that is, as the acceleration of inertia. It is shown that at the initial moment of motion, the acceleration of inertia prevails and the body, instead of accelerating forward at a positive value of the usual acceleration, moves backward, and when decelerating, on the contrary, continues to move forward. This effect is explained by the relativistic nature of time and the fact that the application of force transfers the body from a time-like world to a space-like world with a changed coordinate system. Causal relations also change accordingly. The force applied to the body first changes the speed of movement along the time axis of coordinates, and this change is the cause of the change in the speed of movement of the body along the spatial axis. In other words, in the presence of a force acting on the body, the primary is motion in time, and the secondary is motion in space.

Subject:
Engineering
Material Type:
Case Study
Author:
Ivan Karpenko
Date Added:
10/03/2022
Influence of hydrogen on the toxic substances formation process during co-incineration with natural gas
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The hydrogen practical using problem in combustion processes at the existing boiler equipment is described. The influence of hydrogen on the combustion process is analysed, including adding moisture and its role in the toxic substances formation. The laboratory unit for experimental process at the semi-lamina front follow-up is created for research the role hydrogen in co-firing with natural gas, depending on concentrations of oxide and nitrogen dioxide in combustion products. The relations between the nitrogen oxide and dioxide concentrations in combustion products and hydrogen concentration in hydrogen peroxide solution are received. The optimal conditions for the nitrogen oxide oxidation to dioxide is identified for solutions containing hydrogen depending on the hydrogen content in them.

Subject:
Engineering
Material Type:
Case Study
Author:
Alexandr Sigal
Artem Safiants
Nataliia Nizhnyk
Sergii Plashykhin
Date Added:
10/03/2022
Landscape design as an integral part of the aesthetics of the hotel and restaurant business territory
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In times of intense competition for hotel and restaurant owners, the question arises of finding and using by consumers new ways of identifying their establishments among other establishments of the hotel and restaurant industry. The most effective way to distinguish a hotel and restaurant from many other accommodation and food establishments is to use landscape design. Today, landscaping plays an important role in both aesthetics and overall composition. Greenery performs many functions: hygiene, protection, architecture and art, fire protection and recreation. The use of landscape design in landscaping is aimed at improving the quality of human life and creating favorable leisure conditions, which is an integral part of the hotel business and provides a high level of competitiveness in the hospitality industry. Landscaping is very popular all over the world. It is the science of creating stylish combinations of garden and park, turning the area around a hotel or restaurant into a center of comfort and refined style. The professional approach involved the coordination of all elements of the zone in a single harmonious space. The list of modern design trends impresses with variety and ingenuity, so you can always choose the best option for a particular hotel and restaurant business. Understanding what landscape design is, you can understand the importance of attracting professionals. The project was created over many years and takes into account the smallest nuances of a particular hotel or restaurant. The help of experienced professionals will be the key to the beauty and convenience of your "paradise". The article considers the dependence of the level of competitiveness of the hotel and restaurant industry on the spatial solutions of the surrounding area, defines the terms, as well as the characteristics of "design" and "landscape". Landscape design is an organic combination of natural elements and architecture. It helps to organize space in accordance with functional, ecological and aesthetic requirements, creates a bright artistic image and increases the competitiveness of hotels and restaurants.

Subject:
Engineering
Material Type:
Case Study
Author:
Yevheniia Mendela
Date Added:
10/03/2022
Measurement of the impedance of biological tissues and other environments using the evaluation board EVAL AD5933EBZ
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Analysis and measurement of electrophysical properties of biological materials, liquids and suspensions is an important applied task for almost all fields of medicine, chemistry, pharmacy, physics and other fields that require research into the properties and structure of matter. The modern electronic component base allows you to create miniature devices and measuring systems for the analysis of electric circuits, such is the specialized integrated microcircuit AD5933. This microcircuit is an integral converter of the spectral composition of the impedance in a wide frequency range. The AD5933 microcircuit uses a method of digital signal processing both to generate the test harmonic voltage and to analyze the bipolar current. It is the basis of the evaluation board EVAL-AD5933EBZ, which allows to implement methods of impedance spectroscopy in medicine, industry and agriculture.

Subject:
Engineering
Material Type:
Case Study
Author:
Anrii Dubko
Viktor Nikitin
Date Added:
10/03/2022
PROSPECTS FOR THE USE OF ORGANIC DRIED PHYSALIS IN THE PRODUCTION OF FLOUR CONFECTIONERY
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The article examines the consumption properties and prospects of using dried organic physalis in the production of flour confectionery products. The research object is dried physalis TM “Navitas”. The energy value of this product is 110 kcal/100 g. The fat content is 1 g/100 g; carbohydrates – 20 g/100 g; proteins – 2 g/100 g. Using atomic absorption spectrophotometry on a C-115 PK atomic absorption spectrophotometer, it was established that the potassium content in 100 g of the product is 543 mg, the phosphorus content is 43 mg/100 g. The content of other trace elements is limited. Thus, 100 g of dried organic physalis satisfies the need for potassium per day by 23.16%. Among all vitamins, physalis contains the most vitamin C – 11.7 mg/100 g. Physalis meets the needs of vitamin C by 16.71% and vitamin PP – by 18.50%. Vitamins of group A and B in the product are contained in a limited amount. To study the content of toxic elements in the product, generally accepted methods were used: copper, zinc, lead and cadmium were determined by the atomic absorption method, arsenic by the colorimetric method, mercury by the flameless atomic absorption method. The level of all toxic elements is below the permissible limits. Cadmium was not detected in organic physalis. Such data may indicate the safety of the product. The author has developed a recipe for a new cake made from organic raw materials “Grechanyk”, which contains dried physalis at the rate of 54 kg/t of product. Further research will be aimed at studying the consumer properties of the developed product.

Subject:
Engineering
Material Type:
Case Study
Author:
Аlina Tkachenko
Date Added:
08/02/2022
SUBSTANTIATION OF AGROTECHNICAL REQUIREMENTS FOR SOIL PREPARATION FOR SOWING GRAIN CROPS
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Обґрунтовано агротехнічні вимоги до підготовки грунту під сівбу зернових культур. Встановлено, що при вирощуванні зернових культур на дерново-підзолистих, середньо- та важко суглинкових ґрунтах оптимальні умови росту і розвитку були при щільності ґрунту 1,20-1,30 г/см3. Корені пшениці не проникають в ґрунт, щільність якого перевищує 1,63 г/см3, а пористість нижча за 38%. При об’ємній масі ґрунту 0,86-0,90 г/см3 врожайність рослин також зменшується. Обробіток ґрунту дає змогу активно впливати на мікробіологічні процеси, які протікають в ньому. За дослідженнями вчених, ґрунтові мікроорганізми забезпечують рослини фосфорними і калійними добривами у легкодоступній формі та щорічно засвоюють з повітря близько 100 млн. т. азоту. Ці мікроорганізми виділяють різні фізіологічно-активні речовини – ауксин, гіберелін, вітаміни, які спонукають рослину до розвитку. Важливе значення при цьому відіграє спосіб обробітку ґрунту. Аналізуючи дослідні дані встановлено, що при виборі того чи іншого способу обробітку слід враховувати перш за все конкретні ґрунтово-кліматичні умови, наявність в ґрунті вологи й органічних речовин, особливості розміщення кореневої системи вирощуваних культур. Оптимальні умови водного і повітряного режимів створюються в ґрунтах з дрібно грудочкуватою і зернистою структурою, так як між агрегатними частинами знаходяться проміжки, які заповнені повітрям або дрібним ґрунтом у вигляді пилу. Агрономічно цінною є тільки така структура, що забезпечує родючість ґрунту.

Subject:
Engineering
Material Type:
Case Study
Author:
Mykola Korchak
Date Added:
08/02/2022
Space-like continuum as a physical reality of the universe
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It is substantiated that the unattainable space-like (SL) continuum of the universe at constant speeds of movement is a physical reality at accelerated speeds of movement. It is shown that such physical phenomena as inertia, time slowing, and Lorentz contraction in the special theory of relativity (SRT) occur in the SL-world in the process of accelerated body movement and, accordingly, in non-inertial frames of reference. The acceleration of inertia is not a property of the time-like part of the continuum, but of the space-like part of the continuum. This is a property of the empty space-time continuum, namely the SL-continuum, in the presence of external forces to prevent a change in the body's velocity. The slowing down of time and Lorentzian contraction are also a consequence of the accelerated movement of the body when it reaches a value of constant speed, that is, it occurs in the process of the formation of an inertial system. In this direction, the issues of complementarity of motions in the Euclidean and pseudo-Euclidean continuum, the condition of mutual transformation of the time-like (TL) state and the SL-state of the continuum are investigated. Formula expressions of the principle of complementarity of motions for the Euclidean and pseudo-Euclidean continuum are presented. It is argued that the pseudo-Euclidean geometry is the general geometry of real space-time, first of all, because in the history of the movement of any body, acceleration was present in one way or another. Using the example of Euclidean space, it is demonstrated that the transformation of Lorentz coordinates in a geometrical relation plays the role of rotation of a four-dimensional world interval with indivisible components of space and time and is a projection onto a coordinate system where these characteristics are separated and considered as independent. It is substantiated that for the Lorentz contraction, we are not talking about a real reduction in the length of a moving object, but about the length measured by an unperturbed observer. As for the slowing down of time, there is a real slowing down of time for the object that was moving. And it happens only in non-inertial frames of reference, that is, in the presence of acceleration, that is, in the SL world. Therefore, it is the properties of the SL world that determine the phenomena of time slowing down and Lorentz contraction. It is the SL-continuum that is responsible for the STV phenomena, it is for the SL-continuum that Lorentz transformations were discovered and the concept of pseudo-Euclidean space-time was introduced. Therefore, the special theory of relativity can rightly be called the theory of space-time in the SL world.

Subject:
Engineering
Material Type:
Case Study
Author:
Ivan Karpenko
Date Added:
10/03/2022
Structure and properties of powder alloys based on titanium aluminides after heat treatment
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It is shown that materials consolidated from mechanically synthesized powders by hot isostatic pressing and subjected to additional annealing have structural heredity and have an unusually high microhardness characteristic of nanostructured formations. Hot isostatic pressing makes it possible to realize the effect of structural heredity in materials sintered from powders. Scandium microalloying of Ti-Al powder alloy provides the best combination of ductility and strength characteristics of hot-pressed materials due to the formation of a refined microstructure with nanosized grains at high temperatures and loads.
One of the possible ways to improve the characteristics of the studied class of materials is the complex development of modes for obtaining non-porous materials while maintaining the nanostructure. To accurately assess the properties of the synthesized powder materials, standard complex mechanical tests are required.
Thus, an alloy based on Ti-Al-Sc subjected to HIP at 12000C has optimal mechanical properties. A material with such a microstructure can be considered promising for achieving a satisfactory combination of high crack resistance at room temperature and creep resistance at elevated temperatures due to the presence of the α2 phase and the finest inclusions of scandium oxide at the grain boundaries.
It can be assumed that diffusion processes increase at 12000C, the degree of lattice amorphization decreases, scandium and oxygen dissolved in the lattice leave it and form nanodispersed oxides, the most probable place of accumulation of which is the boundaries of a microsized subgrain. At the same time, scandium, refining the grain from oxygen dissolved in the lattice, makes the material more plastic, and the hereditary presence of scandium on the surface of the initial particles, along with an increased oxygen content there, can have a stabilizing effect on the boundaries of subgrains due to the formation of highly dispersed oxide inclusions.

Subject:
Engineering
Material Type:
Case Study
Author:
Viacheslav Syrovatka
Date Added:
10/03/2022
UML MODEL OF THE PROPERTY RIGHT DISTRIBUTION MODULE USING NFT FRACTIONALIZATION BASED ON BLOCKCHAIN TECHNOLOGY
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The article proposes UML diagrams of the property right distribution module using NFT fractalization based on blockchain technology, which allow to develop software for the implementation of the modern way of fractions generation according to the ERC-1155 standard. A blockchain is a distributed database that is shared among the nodes of a computer network. As a database, a blockchain stores information electronically in digital format. Blockchains are best known for their crucial role in cryptocurrency systems, such as Bitcoin, for maintaining a secure and decentralized record of transactions. The innovation with a blockchain is that it guarantees the fidelity and security of a record of data and generates trust without the need for a trusted third party. This standard was chosen for the impossibility of offering fractions for sale on other platforms, ensuring the uniqueness of the proposed decentralized application. The main reason for the development is to create a module located on the network blockchain, ensuring the security of functionality with cryptographic algorithms from one of the most secure blockchain — Ethereum. The task of development is to implement functionality that ensures the fulfillment of all functional requirements, the most important of which are the creation of a unique NFT to the user’s property, its Fractionalization and the sale of fractions to other users.

Subject:
Engineering
Material Type:
Case Study
Author:
Nataliia Bogdanova
Yehor Rudytsia
Date Added:
08/02/2022
UNIVERSAL APPROACH TO THE IDENTIFICATION OF STEGANOGRAPHIC TRANSFORMATION OF THE SPATIAL DOMAIN OF DIGITAL IMAGES
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The article proposes a universal approach to detect the presence of additional information attachments in the spatial domain of digital images. The approach is based on the use of the steganalytic method developed by the author earlier and based on the analysis of sequential triads of triplets in the matrix of unique colors of image. The steganoanalytic method Color Triads allows to detect with high accuracy the additional information attachments embedded by various steganographic methods into the spatial domain of images. The perturbations in the matrix of unique colors of images as a result of steganographic transformation are illustrated which concludes about the sensitivity of the blue color component even to small modifications of the brightness values of this matrix. The efficiency of detecting stegoes formed at small values of payload (0.4 bpp and less) based on LSB, S-UNIWARD, MiPOD and WOW steganographic methods is shown. The obtained results of computational experiments allow detect the filled color components of digital images with high accuracy even at payload of 0.1 and 0.05 bpp that is much higher than the results of modern analogues. The steganalytic method analyzes the spatial domain of images, which avoids the accumulation of computational errors that affect the detection result.

Subject:
Engineering
Material Type:
Case Study
Author:
Hanna Akhmametieva
Date Added:
08/02/2022
ІНТЕЛЕКТУАЛЬНА АВТОМАТИЗАЦІЯ — ПЕРСПЕКТИВА СІЛЬСКОГО ГОСПОДАРСТВА
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На основі даних світової наукової спільноти щодо “сюрпризної” кліматичної ситуації, зростаючої динаміки цивілізації та урбанізації у країнах, які розвиваються, досліджено проблему визначення нових підходів до розвитку й ведення сільського господарства, зокрема на основі зміни парадигми його ведення. Аналіз новітніх публікацій, що відображають наукову оцінку цього процесу, зумовив необхідність надання особливої ваги у нашій роботі проблемі інноваційного потенціалу галузі, оскільки нагальні питання можна вирішувати, синтезуючи відомі інженерні технології з інноваційно-інтелектуальною моделлю розвитку сільського господарства. Зазначено, що потенціал екстенсивного розвитку в агросекторі вичерпано, тому актуальними є технології, які підвищують інтенсивність й ефективність сільського господарства внаслідок подолання кризи системного мислення у сільському господарстві та переходу до розвитку адаптивного сільгоспсектора у регіонах, з оптимізацією логістики, концептуальним використанням задіяних і залишків вільних сільгоспземель у більшості країн світу. Акцентується те, що впровадження нових технологічних рішень, починаючи з автоматизованого сільськогосподарського обладнання із застосуванням новітніх кремнієвих розробок мікроелектроніки – мікроконтролерів та мікропроцесорів й широкого спектру цифрових датчиків, за допомогою яких уможливлюється відстеження апріорних груп параметрів довкілля, флори й фауни, а також динаміки їхньої варіативності, екстремальних значень, на підставі чого здійснюється оцінка реального стану та прогнозування, у результаті – сільське господарство перетворюється на сектор з надзвичайно інтенсивним потоком даних. Наголошено, що дані, зібрані завдяки мережевим технологіям в одному місці, можуть бути оброблені сучасними науковими методами для виявлення закономірностей, на основі котрих можна з високою вірогідністю ухвалювати адекватні рішення щодо кількісної оцінки результатів сільгоспдіяльності та мінімізації витратних ризиків. Висновується, що інтенсивне впровадження цифровізації та Інтернету речей (IoT) у сільське господарство (IoTAg) має перетворити галузь, що менш ніж будь-яка інша під впливом ІТ, на високотехнологічний бізнес завдяки стрімкому зростанню продуктивності та зниженню непродуктивних витрат.

Subject:
Engineering
Material Type:
Case Study
Author:
Олексій Дяченко
Станіслав Березовський
Date Added:
08/02/2022